The hardest material known to man, diamond is the only gemstone primarily comprised of one element, carbon. One of the oldest known gems, diamonds were mined in India as far back as 400 B.C. The largest diamond ever found was the Cullinan, a 3,106 ct. behemoth, found in 1905. It was cut into 105 stones, two of which reside in the British Crown Jewels.
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